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Haritaki (Terminalia chebula)



Interactions

Haritaki/Drug Interactions:
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may have antibacterial activity against several bacterial isolates, including various species of Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Clostridium, Shigella, Staphylococcus (including beta-lactamase-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Vibrio, Salmonella (including multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi), Escherichia, Enterobacteria, Corynebacteria, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Proteus, and Helicobacter pylori (23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 6). The effects of haritaki and antibiotics are not well understood.
  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: Based on animal studies, extracts of seeds and fruit of Terminalia chebula may reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (16; 17; 18; 19). Theoretically, concurrent use of haritaki and antidiabetic agents may cause added blood sugar lowering.
  • Antifungal agentsAntifungal agents: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula may inhibit the growth of Trichophyton species, Candida species (including clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans), Aspergillus species, and Torulopsis glabrata (33; 34; 31).
  • Anti-inflammatory agentsAnti-inflammatory agents: Based on a study of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages, Padma 28 (a mixture of herbs that includes Terminalia chebula) may induce a concentration-dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis (4).
  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: Based on animal studies, Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce total cholesterol, total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acid levels and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hypercholesteremic or hyperlipidemic rats (35; 36).
  • Antineoplastic agentsAntineoplastic agents: Based on an in vitro study, a 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may decrease cell viability, inhibit cell proliferation, and induce cell death in a dose-dependent manner in several malignant cell lines (37). Based on animal study, Terminalia chebula may prevent ferric nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe- NTA)-induced renal tumorigenesis in Wistar rats (38), and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice (39).
  • Antiviral agentsAntiviral agents: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula may inhibit human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase (40), and Terminalia chebula and Ledretan-96 (an herbal formula containing Terminalia chebula) may protect against damage caused by influenza A virus (3). Based on animal studies, Terminalia chebula may inhibit replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and murine CMV (MCMV) in MCMV infection models of immunosuppressed mice (41; 42), and the combination of acyclovir with Terminalia chebula Retz. may have strong therapeutic anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity in mice (43).
  • Cardiovascular drugsCardiovascular drugs: Based on a study in rats, pretreatment with Terminalia chebula extract (500mg/kg) may ameliorate the effect of isoproterenol (200mg/kg)-induced myocardial damage (44).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: Based on an animal studies, Terminalia chebula may accelerate the healing of indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in rats (45) and, at a dose of 100mg/kg daily for 15 days orally, increased the percentage of gastric emptying (compared with metoclopramide, a prokinetic drug) (46). Based on a study in rats with duodenal ulcers, a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines that included Terminalia chebula (with Glycyrrhiza glabra, Piper longum, and Shanka bhasma) may increase the activity of beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands (47).
  • Hepatotoxic agentsHepatotoxic agents: Based on animal studies, a 95% ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may prevent hepatotoxicity caused by rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (given in combination) in a subchronic mode (12 weeks) (10). Based on studies in rats, treatment and pretreatment of cultured rat primary hepatocytes with an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit or with HP-1 (an herbal formulation containing Terminalia chebula) may reverse tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell cytotoxicity and lactate dehydrogenase leakage and lower serum levels of liver enzymes (48; 49; 2).
  • SertralineSertraline: Based on a case report, an herbal mixture containing Terminalia chebula may be responsible for decreasing the therapeutic efficacy of sertraline, leading to two relapses of depression (50).

Haritaki/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may have antibacterial activity against several bacterial isolates, including various species of Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Clostridium, Shigella, Staphylococcus (including beta-lactamase-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Vibrio, Salmonella (including multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi), Escherichia, Enterobacteria, Corynebacteria, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Proteus, and Helicobacter pylori (23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 6). The effects of haritaki and antibacterial agents are not well understood.
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula may inhibit the growth of Trichophyton species, Candida species (including Clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans), Aspergillus species, and Torulopsis glabrata (33; 34; 31).
  • Anti-inflammatory herbsAnti-inflammatory herbs: Based on a study of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages, Padma 28 (a mixture of herbs that includes Terminalia chebula) may induce a concentration-dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis (4).
  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: Based on animal studies, Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce total cholesterol, total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acid levels and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hypercholesteremic or hyperlipidemic rats (35; 36).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Based on in vitro and animal studies, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may have free radical-scavenging activities, as well as antilipid peroxidation and antisuperoxide radical formation (51; 52; 53; 54; 55; 39; 56; 49; 57). Based on an in vitro study, Aller-7 (a combination of Terminalia chebula and six other herbs) may have concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically generated hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt radical, and it may also inhibit free radical-induced hemolysis (58).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Based on an in vitro study, a 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may decrease cell viability, inhibit cell proliferation, and induce cell death in a dose-dependent manner in several malignant cell lines (37). Terminalia chebula may prevent ferric nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe- NTA)-induced renal tumorigenesis in Wistar rats (38), and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice (39).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula may inhibit human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase (40), and Terminalia chebula and Ledretan-96 (an herbal formula containing Terminalia chebula) may protect against damage caused by influenza A virus (3). Based on animal studies, Terminalia chebula may inhibit replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and murine CMV (MCMV) in MCMV infection models of immunosuppressed mice (41; 42), and the combination of acyclovir with Terminalia chebula Retz. may have strong therapeutic anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity in mice (43).
  • Cardiovascular herbs and supplementsCardiovascular herbs and supplements: Based on a study in rats, pretreatment with Terminalia chebula extract (500mg/kg) may ameliorate the effect of isoproterenol (200 mg/kg)-induced myocardial damage (44).
  • Gastrointestinal herbs and supplementsGastrointestinal herbs and supplements: Based on an animal studies, Terminalia chebula may accelerate the healing of indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in rats (45) and, at a dose of 100mg/kg daily for 15 days orally, increase the percentage of gastric emptying (compared with metoclopramide, a prokinetic drug) (46). Based on a study in rats with duodenal ulcers, a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines that included Terminalia chebula (with Glycyrrhiza glabra, Piper longum, and Shanka bhasma) may increase the activity of beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands (47).
  • Hepatotoxic herbsHepatotoxic herbs: Based on animal studies, a 95% ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may prevent hepatotoxicity caused by rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (given in combination) in a subchronic mode (12 weeks) (10). Based on studies in rats, treatment and pretreatment of cultured rat primary hepatocytes with an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit or with HP-1 (an herbal formulation containing Terminalia chebula) may reverse tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell cytotoxicity and lactate dehydrogenase leakage and significantly lower serum levels of liver enzymes (48; 49; 2).
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: Based on animal studies, extracts of seeds and fruit of Terminalia chebula may reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (16; 17; 18; 19).

Haritaki/Food Interactions:
  • Insufficient available evidence.

Haritaki/Lab Interactions:
  • Antibody titersAntibody titers: Based on animal study, an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may increase humoral antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice (13).
  • Beta-glucuronidase activityBeta-glucuronidase activity: Based on animal study, a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines that included Terminalia chebula (with Glycyrrhiza glabra, Piper longum, and Shanka bhasma) may increase the activity of beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands of rats with duodenal ulcers (47).
  • Blood glucoseBlood glucose: Based on animal study, extracts of seeds and fruit of Terminalia chebula may result in reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (16; 17; 18; 19). Based on animal study, Terminalia chebula at a dose of 200mg/kg may produce a decrease in the oral glucose tolerance test in diabetic rats (17).
  • Blood urea nitrogen levelsBlood urea nitrogen levels: Based on animal study, treatment of rats with Terminalia chebula (25mg/kg and 50mg/kg daily) for one week before administration of nickel chloride (Ni 250mcM/kg) may lead to downregulation of serum blood urea nitrogen (59).
  • Collagen levelsCollagen levels: Based on animal study, a topical ointment prepared from alcohol extract of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a concentration of 10% w/w, may increase the level of collagen in infected rat wound-healing models (60; 61).
  • Corticosterone levelsCorticosterone levels: Based on animal study, oral administration of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a dose of 1g/kg for 48 days, may prevent increases in corticosterone levels induced by cold stress (8C for 16 hours per day for 15 days) in albino rats (5). The same dose may prevent increases in corticosterone levels induced by noise stress (100dB for four hours per day for 15 days) (56).
  • CreatinineCreatinine: Based on animal study, treatment of rats with Terminalia chebula (25mg/kg and 50mg/kg daily) for one week before administration of nickel chloride (Ni 250mcM/kg) may lead to downregulation of serum creatinine (59).
  • Glutathione contentGlutathione content: Based on animal study, Terminalia chebula (25mg/kg and 50mg/kg daily) for one week before administration of nickel chloride (Ni 250mcM/kg) may lead to downregulation of glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase (59).
  • Hemoglobin A1c levelsHemoglobin A1c levels: Based on animal study, extracts of seeds and fruit of Terminalia chebula may result in reduction of hemoglobin A1c levels in diabetic rats (17; 18).
  • Hexosamine levelsHexosamine levels: Based on animal study, a topical ointment prepared from alcohol extract of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a concentration of 10% w/w, may increase the level of hexosamine in infected rat wound-healing models (60; 61).
  • Lipid profileLipid profile: Based on animal study, Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce total cholesterol, total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acid levels and may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hypercholesteremic or hyperlipidemic rats (35; 36).
  • Liver function testsLiver function tests: Based on in vitro research, treatment and pretreatment of cultured rat primary hepatocytes with an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit or with HP-1 (an herbal formulation containing Terminalia chebula) may reverse tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell cytotoxicity and lactate dehydrogenase leakage and lower the serum levels of liver enzymes (48; 49; 2).
  • Neutrophil functionNeutrophil function: Based on animal study, oral administration of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a dose of 1g/kg daily for 48 days, may stimulate neutrophil function and prevent stress-induced suppression in neutrophil function in immunized rats (62).
  • Nitric oxide synthesisNitric oxide synthesis: Based on in vitro research, in a study of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages, Padma 28 (a mixture of herbs that includes Terminalia chebula) may induce a concentration-dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis (4).
  • Superoxide dismutase levelsSuperoxide dismutase levels: Based on animal study, a topical ointment prepared from alcohol extract of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a concentration of 10% w/w, may increase the level of superoxide dismutase in infected rat wound-healing models (60).
  • Uronic acid levelsUronic acid levels: Based on animal study, a topical ointment prepared from alcohol extract of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a concentration of 10% w/w, may increase the level of uronic acid in infected rat wound-healing models (60; 61).

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